Metformin, marketed under the tradename Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is particularly true in people who are overweight.
It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes. It is not
associated with weight gain. It is taken by mouth.
Metformin is generally well tolerated. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain. It has a low risk of developing low blood sugar. High blood lactic acid levels is a concern if prescribed inappropriately and in overdose. It should not be used in those with liver disease or kidney problems. While there is no clear harm if used during pregnancy insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes. Metformin is in the biguanide class. It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing glucose use by body tissues.
Metformin was discovered in 1922. Study in humans began in 1950s by French physician Jean Sterne. It was introduced in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995. It is on the World Health Organization\'s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs between 5 and 25 USD per month.
|Appearance||White crystal||White crystal|
IR: complies with reference spectrum <197k>
Identification test: it meets the requirements of the test for chloride <191>
Any other impurity≤0.1%
|Loss on drying||≤0.5%<731>||0.05%|
|Residue on ignition||≤0.1%<281>||0.03%|
|Assay (on anhydrous basis)||98.5% ~ 101.0%||99.8%|
|Conclusion: Conforms withUSP37|